The two main parts of a sentence are the subject and the predicate. (Ang dalawang pangunahing bahagi ng pangungusap ay ang simuno at ang panaguri.)
Simuno is the Filipino word for subject. It is what the sentence is about.
Tagalog meaning of simuno: ang salita o grupo ng mga salita na syang pinag-uusapan sa pangungusap
Panaguri is the Filipino word for predicate. It is the part of the sentence that talks about the subject and usually has a verb and/or an adjective.
Tagalog meaning of panaguri: ang salita o grupo ng mga salita na syang nagkukuwento, naglalarawan, o nagpapaliwanag tungkol sa simuno
Halimbawa ng simuno at panaguri sa pangungusap:
Usually, it’s fairly easy to identify who or what the sentence is talking about.
Example: Si Jaime ay matangkad. (Jaime is tall.)
It’s quite obvious the topic is “si Jaime” (the subject) and “ay matangkad” is the part of the sentence that describes him (the predicate).
If there’s an action involved, the subject is usually the one doing the action.
Example: Umiyak si Hesus. (Jesus wept.)
We can identify the verb: umiyak (wept). Who’s doing the action? Si Hesus (Jesus). So umiyak is the predicate and si Hesus is the subject.
Where it gets confusing is when the subject and the predicate are both noun phrases, especially long ones. It can be tricky to figure out which noun the sentence is about, especially since, in Filipino sentence structure, the subject can come before or after the predicate.
In cases like this, it helps to identify the order of the sentence (ayos ng pangungusap), which will then help you identify the simuno and the panaguri.
In Filipino, sentences can be ordered in two ways:
A sentence that is in the karaniwan (or tuwid) form begins with the predicate, followed by the subject.
Tagalog definition: Ang pangungusap na nasa karaniwan (o tuwid) na ayos ay nagsisimula sa panaguri at nagtatapos sa simuno.
The Tagalog word “karaniwan” means common and it actually is very common for Tagalog sentences to start with the predicate, particularly a verb, as in the example sentence above, “Umiyak si Hesus.”
A sentence that is in the di-karaniwan (or kabalikan) form starts with the subject, usually followed by the word “ay,” and ending with the predicate.
Tagaog definition: Ang pangungusap na nasa di-karaniwan (o kabalikan) na ayos ay nagsisimula sa simuno, na kadalasan ay sinusundan ng salitang “ay,” at nagwawakas sa panaguri.
The word “di-karaniwan” means uncommon; “kabalikan” means reverse. Nevertheless, you still often hear Filipino sentences that begin with the subject. They usually take the form of “Si _ ay _” or “Ang _ ay _.” The sentence “Si Jaime ay matangkad” is an example of a di-karaniwan sentence.
Tip: Most di-karaniwan sentences have the word “ay” to link the subject and the predicate. If you see the word “ay,” that’s a clue that the sentence is most likely in the di-karaniwan order — which means that the subject is the word or group of words at the beginning of the sentence.
The next section contains self-correcting worksheets on simuno at panaguri and ayos ng pangungusap that can be answered on this page (online).
You can also download printable versions of the following simuno at panaguri / ayos ng pangungusap worksheets:
Note on the Worksheets
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