Before we go into diptonggo at klaster, let’s talk about pantig first, because both diptonggo and klaster are letter pairs that belong to a single pantig.
Pantig is the Filipino (Tagalog) word for syllable. A syllable is any one of the parts into which a word is naturally divided when it is pronounced. It is made up of either:
* a vowel sound alone, or
* a vowel sound combined with a consonant sound.
The Tagalog definition of pantig is “galaw ng bibig, saltik ng dila, na may kasabay na tunog ng lalamunan o walang antalang bugso ng tinig sa pagbigkas ng salita.”
For example, the word syllable itself is made up of three syllables: syl-la-ble. The word pantig is made up of two syllables: pan-tig. Diptonggo has three syllables: dip-tong-go. Klaster has two syllables: klas-ter.
Diptonggo is the single combined sound of a patinig (vowel) followed by a malapatinig in a single syllable.
* Patinig: a / e / i / o / u
* Malapatinig: w / y
In the Filipino language, the following are diptonggo:
aw – ex. lugaw (porridge)
ay – ex. kulay (color)
ey – ex. reyna (queen)
iw – ex. sisiw (chick)
iy – ex. kami’y (contraction of kami ay, which means we are; I’ve only ever seen contractions as examples of the /iy/ diptonggo)
oy – ex. baboy (pig)
uy – ex. kasuy (cashew)
What about ew, ow, uw? They are also technically diptonggo but there are no Filipino words (as yet!) that have them in the same syllable.
And that’s a really important distinction: the patinig and malapatinig of a diptonggo have to be in the same syllable, otherwise they aren’t considered diptonggo. For example, uwak (crow) has a /uw/ but the rules of syllabication in Filipino say that when the w (or y) is followed by another vowel, the w (or y) goes with the vowel after it. So the syllables of uwak would be u-wak — the patinig u and the malapatinig w are in different syllables and are therefore not considered a diptonggo.
Another important thing to know is that — unlike in English, where two vowels could form a diphthong — in Filipino, two vowels that appear next to each other are pronounced separately, are considered separate syllables, and therefore can’t be diptonggo. Examples:
Uupo (will sit) – u-u-po – not a diptonggo
Paano (how) – pa-a-no – not a diptonggo
Noo (forehead) – no-o – not a diptonggo
Again: diptonggo = [patinig] + [malapatinig] in the same syllable
Klaster, also called kambal katinig, refers to two different consonants that are next to each other within a single syllable. They may be found at the beginning, middle, or end of a word, and just like the diptonggo, the two consonants have to belong to the same syllable for them to be considered a klaster. For example, the word pantig has two different consonants in the middle but they belong to different syllables, so they are not considered a klaster.
Unahan / posisyong inisyal (found at the beginning of the word)
* trabaho (work)
* plano (plan)
Gitna / posisyong midyal (found in the middle of the word)
* kumpleto (complete)
* eroplano (airplane)
Hulihan / posisyong pinal (found at the end of the word)
* nars (nurse)
* relaks (relax)
(You’ll notice that a lot of these words with klaster are words that have been adapted from foreign languages and have the same meanings as their words of origin.)
Again: klaster = [katinig] + [a different katinig] in the same syllable
A free printable PDF copy of this worksheet (with white background) can be downloaded here: HuntersWoodsPH Filipino Worksheet PDF: Diptonggo at Klaster.
Tip: When answering the worksheet below in a desktop or laptop, you can zoom out your screen (for Windows, scroll down the mouse wheel while pressing Ctrl) so the entire worksheet will fit into your screen.
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