In this post on root types, you will find the following:
Taproot system – has a strongly developed downward-growing main root (called a taproot) and smaller branch roots
Fibrous (also known as diffuse) root system – has many roots of the same size that develop from the end of the stem, with smaller lateral roots that branch off them in all directions.
Taproot or Fibrous?
These are just some of the special types of roots. Note that one may be just a subtype of another; for example, the stilt roots of mangroves are a kind of adventitious root, and tuberous roots such as potatoes are a kind of storage root. Sometimes, buttress roots, prop roots, and stilt roots are used interchangeably.
Adventitious roots are roots that form on parts of the plant (such as the stem) other than the roots.
Aerating roots are roots that rise above the ground, especially above water. In some mangroves, the aerating roots have numerous breathing pores for gas exchange. Aerating roots are also called pneumatophores.
Aerial roots are roots that are entirely above the ground, such as in ivy and in orchids.
Buttress roots are large, wide roots on all sides of the base of a tree. They are usually found in tropical forests with soil that is nutrient-poor and not very deep. They gather more nutrients and prevent the tree from falling over.
Haustorial roots are roots of parasitic plants (such as mistletoe) that can absorb water and nutrients from another plant.
Prop roots are adventitious roots that develop from branches or from vertical stems and grow downward into the soil to help support the plant in an upright position.
Stilt roots are adventitious roots that grow down from lateral branches and branch in the soil. They are common among mangroves.
Storage roots are roots that are modified for storage of food or water, such as carrots and beets.
Tuberous roots are a special kind of storage root. Unlike carrots and beets, which are taproots, tuberous roots develop from lateral roots that have swollen to store food or water. Examples of tuberous roots include sweet potatoes and dahlia.
Match the pictures to the different types of roots.
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