Hunter's Woods PH

Montessori Lesson: Body Functions of Vertebrates

Hunters Woods PH | Montessori | Body Functions of Vertebrates

This lesson covers what vertebrates are, the purpose of the backbone, and the body functions of vertebrates such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, based on the Montessori curriculum.

Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone. The word “vertebrate” comes from the bones that make up the backbone, which are called vertebrae. Vertebrates include mammals (like humans), birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

Body Functions of Vertebrates: Presentation for Kids

Are you sitting down right now? Standing? Hanging upside down from the ceiling like Spiderman?

 

Whatever you’re doing — whatever position you’re in — you can do it because you, like me, and all other humans, have a support system in your body called a skeletal system.

 

And one of the most important parts of your skeletal system is your backbone.

 

Can you put your fingers on the back of your head, and then run them down the back of your neck? Try to continue running them down as far as you can, all the way to the bottom of your back.

 

That bone you feel is your backbone. It’s also called the spine.

 

Why is the backbone important?

 

Well, it is your backbone, or your spine, that covers your spinal cord. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that go to and from the brain. The brain and the spinal cord form your central nervous system. It’s your spinal cord that carries signals from your brain to every part of your body, AND from every part of your body to your brain.

 

Most animals have a central nervous system BUT not all of them have a backbone.

 

Animals that don’t have backbones are called invertebrates.

 

Animals that DO have backbones are called vertebrates

 

Vertebrates include mammals — like you! — birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.

 

Now, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish and mammals have SOME things in common — like having a backbone — but they also have features that are different from each other.

 

What do you think are their differences?

 

Think about how they move…how they look…how they breathe… 

 

How are they the same? And how are they different?

 

Let’s find out.

Body Functions of Mammals

Movement: They move by means of four limbs.

Support: They have inner skeletons made of bone.

Protection: Their bodies have hair.

Circulation: Their hearts are divided into four chambers.

Respiration: They breathe with lungs.

Reproduction: Their young develop inside their mother who suckles them.

Body Functions of Birds

Movement: They move by means of wings, which are limbs adapted for flying.

Support: They have inner skeletons made of bone.

Protection: Their bodies have feathers.

Circulation: Their hearts are divided into four chambers.

Respiration: They breathe with lungs.

Reproduction: Their young develop inside eggs with hard shells.

Body Functions of Fish

Movement: They move by means of fins, which are limbs adapted by swimming.

Support: They have inner skeletons made of cartilage or bone.

Protection: Their bodies have scales.

Circulation: Their hearts are divided into two chambers.

Respiration: They breathe with gills.

Reproduction: Their young develop inside jelly-coated eggs.

Body Functions of Amphibians

Movement: They move by means of four limbs.

Support: They have inner skeletons made of bone.

Protection: Their bodies have no scales, hair, or feathers.

Circulation: Their hearts are divided into three chambers.

Respiration: They breathe with gills when they are young and lungs when they are mature.

Reproduction: Their young develop inside jelly-coated eggs. They hatch in water and transform to land creatures as they mature.

Body Functions of Reptiles

Movement: They move by means of short limbs or scuts.

Support: They have inner skeletons made of bone.

Protection: Their bodies have scales or plates.

Circulation: Their hearts are divided into three chambers.

Respiration: They breathe with lungs.

Reproduction: Their young develop inside eggs with tough shells.

Hunters Woods PH | Montessori | Body Functions of Vertebrates

Body Functions of Vertebrates: Summary

 Body Functions of MammalsBody Functions of BirdsBody Functions of FishBody Functions of AmphibiansBody Functions of Reptiles
MovementThey move by means of four limbs.They move by means of wings, which are limbs adapted for flying.They move by means of fins, which are limbs adapted by swimming.They move by means of four limbs.They move by means of short limbs or scuts.
SupportThey have inner skeletons made of bone.They have inner skeletons made of bone.They have inner skeletons made of cartilage or bone.They have inner skeletons made of bone.They have inner skeletons made of bone.
ProtectionTheir bodies have hair.Their bodies have feathers.Their bodies have scales.Their bodies have no scales, hair, or feathers.Their bodies have scales or plates.
CirculationTheir hearts are divided into four chambers.Their hearts are divided into four chambers.Their hearts are divided into two chambers.Their hearts are divided into three chambers.Their hearts are divided into three chambers.
RespirationThey breathe with lungs.They breathe with lungs.They breathe with gills.They breathe with gills when they are young and lungs when they are mature.They breathe with lungs.
ReproductionTheir young develop inside their mother who suckles them.Their young develop inside eggs with hard shells.Their young develop inside jelly-coated eggs.Their young develop inside jelly-coated eggs. They hatch in water and transform to land creatures as they mature.Their young develop inside eggs with tough shells.

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